This is your easy to use list of English to French words and phrases to use while traveling in France This Online Dictionary Basic English/French translations. Translation for 'PDF' in the free French-English dictionary and many other English translations. To help learn English an English to French dictionary in pdf for free. Study 20 Dictionary with English words translated to French to help with learning English.
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Harrap's New Standard French & English Dictionary, which comes in four . But in the real world of English-Russian translation, few professionals would think of . French Translation of “PDF” | The official Collins English-French Dictionary online . Over French translations of English words and phrases. Pdf translated from French to English including synonyms, definitions, and related words. Nederlands. Home ->Dictionaries ->French/English ->Translate PDF.
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Translate words in your browser, your word processor and in many more applications Simple and easy - one click is enough! Take advantage of the outstanding vocabulary of the popular LEO dictionaries. The number of students who like 41 and love 8 OTs is nearly the same as those who reported feeling this way about online dictionaries, representing Table 5 Positive comments about online translators. The issues of reliability and dependability Counts of positive descriptors used for online dictionaries can be found above in Table 4.
Beyond the general comments of usefulness or likability mentioned above, several notable descriptions used for ODs stand out. A number of students state that ODs are reliable 6 , trust worthy 2 , and dependable 1. They are much more trust worthy and are very detailed.
As can be seen in Table 5 above, fewer participants mentioned finding OTs to be reliable 3 or dependable 1 , representing fewer than half as many positive comments on this issue for OTs as compared to ODs.
The flipside of the coin, the negative opinions students expressed about the two tools related to reliability, may also shed some light on this issue. Table 6 below contains negative comments given by students related to online dictionaries.
Not a single student characterized ODs as being unreliable, untrustworthy, or not dependable. Table 6 Negative comments about online dictionaries.
This issue may be one of the most important difference in opinions between the two tools, since a total of 16 negative comments for online translation mentioned either a perceived unreliability or a lack of trust in them, whereas not a single respondent expressed a similar distrust in ODs. This trend reiterates what Larson-Guenette and Cornell et al.
In many cases, students are using OTs in spite of the fact that they are not confident about the results they receive when using this tool. Possible reasons for this will be discussed shortly. A few comments exemplify this general tendency towards a lack of trust in online translation, with some comments treating the subject broadly e.
Table 7 Negative comments about online translators. They are more accurate. These opinions do not mean that ODs and OTs have similar accuracy in practice — further research would be needed to see whether students commit more errors with one compared to the other, or whether students complete compositions with similar speeds when using the two tools — but it is interesting to note that some students mentioned these factors for both tools. Conversely, the main focus of negative comments about OTs was accuracy, with over 50 comments directly addressing this.
As with ODs, these negative comments may indicate an underlying expectation that is not being met: students CALL-EJ, 20 1 , may be anticipating accuracy from online translators, but the actual output from the OTs does not correspond to their preconceived notions in this area. Accuracy appears to be a noteworthy difference in the perceptions of online dictionaries and translators. As mentioned above, only three participants specifically called out ODs as being inaccurate.
The views on perceived lack of accuracy and reliability for OTs points to a core issue: while The issues of usability and over reliance According to the data, there are no distinct patterns in how students use ODs or OTs. Several people found ODs to be quick 4 , fast 2 , rapid 1 , or speedy 1 ; while similar numbers found them to be handy 3 , convenient 3 , accessible 1 or practical 1.
These descriptors, taken as a whole, are generally related to emotional or personal attitudes or preferences related to ODs: this is the reaction to their experiences with the tool. Somewhat surprisingly, reports about speed for OTs were similar to those of online dictionaries, with only one student each mentioning that online translation was faster, quick, or good for speed.
This does not necessarily mean that participants find online translators to be slow or inconvenient; it just means they did not mention speed and convenience as often in their opinions, perhaps due to choosing to discuss other issues.
It is interesting to note that these comments were generally in the negative, which may indicate that students had prior expectations for ODs that are not being met in actual use. Two areas from the data that may be related are whether or not ODs and OTs are essential for learning, or rather an unwelcome guest in the learning process. The comments about abuse of the translator appear to go beyond ease of use is the interface or function of the tool user- friendly?
It is possible that the three issues are related: some students may believe that OTs are unreliable, but use them anyway because they perceive them to be more convenient or easier to use. This intersection between ease of use and overuse may point to a tendency on the part of some students to use OTs as an expedient way to complete a given assignment, as opposed to a tool that assists in reflection and learning. Since the literature mentions that this is a concern expressed by some instructors e.
Clifford et al. An important caveat, however, is the fact that so many students This finding would suggest that finishing an assignment is not the only motivation for student use of OTs. What students use or do not use ODs and OTs for Participants also mentioned for what areas they use online dictionaries and translators, and with what aspects of the language they receive assistance.
Some similarities can be noted; for example, participants mentioned using an OD for help with individual words 32 and vocabulary 6 ; similar but somewhat smaller numbers of participants use OTs for individual words 26 and vocabulary 2.
Participants check or double-check usage with an OD 6 or an OT 4. Six participants said that OTs help them with their learning 5 or gaining knowledge 1 ; similarly, four participants said ODs help with learning. While a number of other common uses are mentioned for both online dictionaries and translators, the number of participants mentioning them for each tool sometimes varies widely.
One use of ODs, looking something up 13 , was mentioned by only one participant as something they perform via online translation. Participants also report turning to ODs for conjugations 15 and meanings 10 more than they reported using OTs for these purposes 2 and 3, respectively.
On the other hand, more participants reported using OTs for understanding 12 as compared to doing so with online dictionaries 5. More students also said they use online translation for CALL-EJ, 20 1 , phrases 8 and sentences 8 as compared to those reporting doing so with online dictionaries, with two participants each saying they use ODs this way.
Some items that participants mentioned only using ODs for include finding new words 1 , hearing new words 1 , spelling 2 , and information about dialects 1. Other items were mentioned solely for OTs, including figuring out what to say 1 , structures 2 , and translating paragraphs 1.
Although participants use online dictionaries and translators in similar percentages, these numbers show the ways in which they use them can sometimes diverge. There appears to be a slight trend towards using ODs for more specific, concrete skills e. Specific aspects mentioned by participants holding a negative opinion of online dictionaries were that they believed ODs did not perform well with sentences 5 and conjugations 2 , or were not good for learning 2. Since the percentage of negative comments about ODs was small, representing only 6.
Some judged that OTs were not good for grammar 7 , phrases 6 , conjugations 5 , meanings 4 , words 3 , structures 2 , and verbs 2.
It is interesting to note that some of these e. There was one main point of commonality between negative views of ODs and OTs. Interestingly, the top aspect mentioned as a negative for ODs, sentences, was also at the top of the list for OTs 12 , even though OTs are arguably more suited for translating complete sentences; dictionaries generally allow only for searching isolated words or some common short phrases.
Given these results, and the fact that students found ODs and OTs to be useful at similar rates, perceived performance on full sentences does not seem to be a differentiating factor in student opinions on the two tools.
In summary, online dictionaries are largely viewed positively by participants, with positive opinions outweighing negative ones by over a nine-to-one ratio; online translators, while enjoying nearly the same number of positive comments, were somewhat more polarizing, with nearly one in four comments expressing a negative opinion about OTs.
Several quotations from participants are indicative of the positive opinions of some participants related to both ODs and OTs. Most spoke positively in absolute terms about ODs e.
They cannot help form full sentences but give more insight into individual words and their conjugations.
It is possible other levels and settings such as K would find different rates of use for online dictionaries, translators, and search engines, and other opinions related to ODs and OTs. It might be fruitful to divide question items further, for example by asking students when they use the tools for more specific purposes e.
An important avenue of future research would be looking into specific ways that online translation, ODs, and SEs might be introduced to students. A number of articles, both historically and recently e. Implications and Conclusion The fact that nearly nine in ten participants reported using online dictionaries and translators for graded work, and three in four using search engines, suggests a need for teachers to talk openly about these tools with their students.
With so many language students using OTs even when they are prohibited, it may be time to reconsider classroom policies and instructional strategies related to their use. Students do not appear to be using online resources just to get a good grade or make their work easier, as evidenced by over four out of five students using OTs and ODs even for practice, review, or fun on their own. Just as with a calculator for math, online tools may be able to assist students in their learning, as well as enhance their understanding and expression in the target language.
It is not surprising that 21 st-century students are turning to 21st-century technologies to assist them with understanding and communicating in an increasingly globalized world.
It is important to acknowledge the use of these resources and attempt to give our students guidance in how to use technology responsibly.
References Bahri, H. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 7 3 , Clifford, J. Surveying the landscape: What is the role of machine translation in language learning? Cornell, R. Ducar, C.
Machine translation and the L2 classroom: Pedagogical solutions for making peace with Google translate. Foreign Language Annals, 1— Jin, L. Jolley, J. Free online machine translation: Use and perceptions by Spanish students and instructors. Moeller Ed. Larson-Guenette, J.
McCarthy, B. Does online machine translation spell the end of take-home translation assignments? Niitemaa, M. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 9 3 , ReCALL, 21 2 , pp.
Retrieved, Farzi, R. Tight, D. Tool usage and effectiveness among L2 Spanish computer writers. White, K. Die Unterrichtspraxis, 46 2 , Wuttikrikunlaya, P.