This page contains Blue Brain Seminar and PPT with pdf report. Download Blue Brain complete documentation with ppt and pdf for free. Blue Brain, Ask Latest information, Abstract, Report, Presentation (pdf,doc,ppt), Blue Brain technology discussion,Blue Brain paper presentation details,Blue. The IBM is now developing a virtual brain known as the Blue brain. It would be the world¶s first virtual brain. Virtual Brain: is an artificial brain, which does not.
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blue brain seminar report - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. Get the PowerPoint Presentation on “Blue Brain Technology ” by just one single click. Free Download Blue Brain Seminar Report and PPT without any login. Computer Fundamentals – by deilasilimo.cf Free PDF Jun 3, Seminar Report. Blue Brain. 2. INTRODUCTION. Human brain, the most valuable creation of God. The man is called intelligent because of the brain. Today we.
If we finally achieve this the even after the death of a human body we can preserve his knowledge and intelligence. The Blue Brain technology is the latest invention in the field of neural networks.
This technology will open new doors in the field of artificial intelligence.
The blue brain technology provides a comprehensive simulation of the essential internal connectivity of the cerebral parts with the external artificial intelligent network. This study of human brain will lead to a complete sketch of the flow of the electrical signals through the brain. The intelligent neurons are a part of cortex existing in the human brain.
The international computer giant, IBM has done a considerable research in this domain and has developed a virtual brain. This brain is also known as the human brain. This new technology has made way for considerable improvement in supercomputing , also known as high performance computing. Really this concept appears to be very difficult and complex to us. For this we have to first know how the human brain actually works.
It receives signals from sensory neurons nerve cell bodies and their axons and dendrites in the central and peripheral nervous systems, and in response it generates and sends new signals that instruct the corresponding parts of the body to move or react in some way.
It also integrates signals received from the body with signals from adjacent areas of the brain, giving rise to perception and consciousness. The brain weighs about 1, grams 3 pounds and constitutes about 2 percent of total body weight. It consists of three major divisions;. The human ability to feel, interpret and even see is controlled, in computer like calculations, by the magical nervous system. Not even engineers have come close to making circuit boards and computers as delicate and precise as the nervous system.
Medial view of the left hemisphere of human brain. When our eyes see something or our hands touch a warm surface, the sensory cells, also known as Neurons, send a message straight to your brain.
This action of getting information from your surrounding environment is called sensory input because we are putting things in your brain by way of your senses.
Integration is best known as the interpretation of things we have felt, tasted, and touched with our sensory cells, also known as neurons, into responses that the body recognizes.
This process is all accomplished in the brain where many, many neurons work together to understand the environment. Once our brain has interpreted all that we have learned, either by touching, tasting, or using any other sense, then our brain sends a message through neurons to effecter cells, muscle or gland cells, which actually work to perform our requests and act upon our environment. Once the smell of food has reached your nose, which is lined with hairs, it travels to an olfactory bulb, a set of sensory nerves.
The nerve impulses travel through the olfactory tract, around, in a circular way, the thalamus, and finally to the smell sensory cortex of our brain, located between our eye and ear, where it is interpreted to be understood and memorized by the body. Seeing is one of the most pleasing senses of the nervous system.
This cherished action primarily conducted by the lens, which magnifies a seen image, vitreous disc, which bends and rotates an image against the retina, which translates the image and light by a set of cells. The retina is at the back of the eye ball where rods and cones structure along with other cells and tissues covert the image into nerve impulses which are transmitted along the optic nerve to the brain where it is kept for memory. A set of microscopic buds on the tongue divide everything we eat and drink into four kinds of taste: These buds have taste pores, which convert the taste into a nerve impulse and send the impulse to the brain by a sensory nerve fiber.
Upon receiving the message, our brain classifies the different kinds of taste. This is how we can refer the taste of one kind of food to another. Once the sound or sound wave has entered the drum, it goes to a large structure called the cochlea. In this snail like structure, the sound waves are divided into pitches.
The vibrations of the pitches in the cochlea are measured by the Corti. This organ transmits the vibration information to a nerve, which sends it to the brain for interpre- tation and memory. INPUT 1.
INPUT In the nervous system in our body the In a similar way the artificial nervous neurons are responsible for the message system can be created. The scientist passing. The body receives the input has already created artificial neurons by by the sensory cells.
These sensory replacing them with the silicon chip. It cells produces electric impulses which are has also been tested that these neurons received by the neurons.
The neurons can receive the input from the sensory transfer these electric impulses to the cells. So, the electric impulses from brain. The interpretation in the brain done by means of a set of register. The is accomplished by the means of certain different values in these register will states of many neurons.
OUTPUT Based on the states of the neurons the Similarly based on the states of the brain sends the electric impulses repre- register the output signal can be given to senting the responses which are further the artificial neurons in the body which received by the sensory cell of our body will be received by the sensory cell. The sensory cells of which part of our body is going to receive that, it depends upon the state o f the neurons in the brain at that time.
MEMORY There are certain neurons in our brain It is not impossible to store the data which represent certain states perma- permanently by using the secondary nently. When required these state is inter- memory. In the similar way the required preted by our brain and we can remember states of the registers can be stored perma- the past things.
To remember thing we nently. And when required these infor- force the neurons to represent certain mation can be retrieved and used. The past performing some arithmetic and logical experience stored and the current input calculations.
The Blue Brain Project is the first comprehensive attempt to reverse-engineer the mammalian brain, in order to understand brain function and dysfunction through detailed simulations. The mission in undertaking The Blue Brain Project is to gather all existing knowledge of the brain, accelerate the global research effort of reverse engineering the structure and function of the components of the brain, and to build a complete theoretical framework that can orchestrate the reconstruction of the brain of mammals and man from the genetic to the whole brain levels, into computer models for simulation, visualization and automatic knowledge archiving by Biologi- cally accurate computer models of mammalian and human brains could provide a new foundation for understanding functions and malfunctions of the brain and for a new generation of information-based, customized medicine.
This leads to a peak performance of 5. So, the aggregate performance of a processor card in virtual node mode is: The scheme shows the minimal essential building blocks required to recon- struct a neural microcircuit. Microcircuits are composed of neurons and synaptic connections. To model neurons, the three-dimensional morphology, ion channel composition, and distributions and electrical properties of the different types of neuron are required, as well as the total numbers of neurons in the microcircuit and the relative proportions of the different types of neuron.
To model synaptic connections, the physiological and pharmacological properties of the different types of synapse that. Elementary building blocks of neural microcircuits. Neurons receive inputs from thousands of other neurons, which are intricately mapped onto different branches of highly complex dendritic trees and require tens of thousands of compartments to accurately represent them. By exploiting the computing power of Blue Gene, the Blue Brain Project1 aims to build accurate models of the mammalian brain from first principles.
The first phase of the project is to build a cellular-level as opposed to a genetic- or molecular-level model of a 2-week-old rat somatosensory neocortex corresponding to the dimensions of a neocortical column NCC as defined by the dendritic arborizations of the layer 5 pyramidal neurons. The combination of infrared differential interference microscopy in brain slices and the use of multi-neuron patch-. Over the past 10 years, the laboratory has prepared for this reconstruction by developing the multi-neuron patch- clamp approach, recording from thousands of neocortical neurons and their synaptic connections, and developing quantitative approaches to allow a complete numerical breakdown of the elementary building blocks of the NCC.
The recordings have mainly been in the day-old rat somatosensory cortex, which is a highly accessible region on which many researchers have converged following a series of pioneering studies driven by Bert Sakmann. Much of the raw data is located in our databases, but a major initiative is underway to make all these data freely available in a publicly accessible database.
Highly quantitative data are available for rats of this age, mainly because visualization of the tissue is optimal from a technical point of view. This age also provides an ideal template because it can serve as a starting point from which to study maturation and ageing of the NCC. As NCCs show a high degree of stereotypy, the region from which the template is built is not crucial, but a sensory region is preferred because these areas contain a prominent layer 4 with cells specialized to receive input to the neocortex from the thalamus; this will also be required for later calibration with in vivo experiments.
The NCC should not be overly specialized, because this could make generalization to other neocortical regions difficult, but areas such as the barrel cortex do offer the advantage of highly controlled in vivo data for comparison.
The image shows the Microcircuit in various stages of reconstruction. Only a small fraction of reconstructed, three dimensional neurons is shown. Red indicates the dendritic and blue the axonal arborizations. The columnar structure illustrates the.
Reconstructing the neocortical column. Once the microcircuit is built, the exciting work of making the circuit function can begin. All the processors of the Blue Gene are pressed into service, in a massively parallel computation solving the complex mathematical equations that govern the electrical activity in each neuron when a stimulus is applied.
As the elec- trical impulse travels from neuron to neuron, the results are communicated via inter-. Currently, the time required to simulate the circuit. Building the Blue Column requires a series of data manipulations.
The first step is to parse each three-dimensional morphology and correct errors due to the in vitro preparation and reconstruction. The repaired neurons are placed in a database from which statistics for the different anatomical classes of neurons are obtained.
These statistics are used to clone an indefinite number of neurons in each class to capture the full morphological diversity. The next step is to take each neuron and insert ion channel models in order to produce the array of electrical types. The field has reached a sufficient stage of convergence to generate efforts to classify neurons, such as the Petilla Convention - a conference held in October on anatomical and electrical types of neocortical interneuron, established by the community.
Single-cell gene expression studies of neocortical interneurons now provide detailed predictions of the specific combinations of more than 20 ion channel genes that underlie electrical diversity. A database of biologically accurate Hodgkin-Huxley ion channel models is being produced. The simulator NEURON is used with automated fitting algorithms running on Blue Gene to insert ion channels and adjust their parameters to capture the specific electrical properties of the different electrical types found in each anatomical class.
The statistical variations within each electrical class are also used to generate subtle variations in discharge behaviour in each neuron. So, each neuron is morpho- logically and electrically unique. These functionalized neurons are stored in a database. A collision detection algorithm is run to determine the structural positioning of all axo-dendritic touches, and neurons are jittered and spun until the structural touches match experimentally derived statistics.
Probabilities of connectivity between different types of neuron are used to determine which neurons are connected, and all axo-dendritic touches are converted into synaptic connections. The manner in which the axons map onto the. It is therefore possible to place million synapses in accurate three-dimensional space, distributed on the detailed threedimen- sional morphology of each neuron.
The synapses are functionalized according to the synaptic parameters for different classes of synaptic connection within statistical vari- ations of each class, dynamic synaptic models are used to simulate transmission, and synaptic learning algorithms are introduced to allow plasticity.
The distance from the cell body to each synapse is used to compute the axonal delay, and the circuit configuration is exported. The configuration file is read by a NEURON subroutine that calls up each neuron and effectively inserts the location and functional properties of every synapse on the axon, soma and dendrites.
One neuron is then mapped onto each processor and the axonal delays are used to manage communication between neurons and processors. Effectively, processors are converted into neurons, and MPI message-passing interface - based communication cables are converted into axons interconnecting the neurons - so the entire Blue Gene is essentially converted into a neocortical microcircuit.
We developed two software programs for simulating such large-scale networks with morphologically complex neurons. The latter simulator will allow embedding of a detailed NCC model into a simplified large-scale model of the whole brain.
Both of these softwares have already been tested, produce identical results and can simulate tens of thousands of morphologically and electri- cally complex neurons as many as 10, compartments per neuron with more than a dozen Hodgkin-Huxley ion channels per compartment. Up to 10 neurons can be mapped onto each processor to allow simulations of the NCC with as many as , neurons. Optimization of these algorithms could allow simulations to run at close to real time.
The circuit configuration is also read by a graphic application, which renders.
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