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Scheflin and psychologist Jerrold Lee Shapiro observed that the "deeper" the hypnotism, the more likely a particular characteristic is to appear, and the greater extent to which it is manifested.
Scheflin and Shapiro identified 20 separate characteristics that hypnotized subjects might display:  " dissociation "; "detachment"; " suggestibility ", "ideosensory activity";  " catalepsy "; "ideomotor responsiveness";  " age regression" ; " revivification "; " hypermnesia "; "[automatic or suggested] amnesia"; " posthypnotic responses "; "hypnotic analgesia and anesthesia "; "glove anesthesia";  "somnambulism";  "automatic writing"; "time distortion"; "release of inhibitions"; "change in capacity for volitional activity"; "trance logic";  and "effortless imagination".
Historical definitions[ edit ] The earliest definition of hypnosis was given by Braid[ contradictory ], who coined the term "hypnotism" as an abbreviation for "neuro-hypnotism", or nervous sleep, which he contrasted with normal sleep, and defined as: "a peculiar condition of the nervous system, induced by a fixed and abstracted attention of the mental and visual eye, on one object, not of an exciting nature.
The hypnotic sleep, therefore, is the very antithesis or opposite mental and physical condition to that which precedes and accompanies common sleep Therefore, Braid defined hypnotism as a state of mental concentration that often leads to a form of progressive relaxation, termed "nervous sleep".
The hypnotic induction is an extended initial suggestion for using one's imagination, and may contain further elaborations of the introduction.
A hypnotic procedure is used to encourage and evaluate responses to suggestions. When using hypnosis, one person the subject is guided by another the hypnotist to respond to suggestions for changes in subjective experience, alterations in perception,   sensation,  emotion, thought or behavior.
Persons can also learn self-hypnosis, which is the act of administering hypnotic procedures on one's own. If the subject responds to hypnotic suggestions, it is generally inferred that hypnosis has been induced. Many believe that hypnotic responses and experiences are characteristic of a hypnotic state. While some think that it is not necessary to use the word "hypnosis" as part of the hypnotic induction, others view it as essential.
Social psychologists Sarbin and Coe Hypnosis is a role that people play; they act "as if" they were hypnotised. In his early writings, Weitzenhoffer Most recently Spiegel and Spiegel They explain this by pointing out that, in a sense, all learning is post-hypnotic, which explains why the number of ways people can be put into a hypnotic state are so varied: anything that focuses a person's attention, inward or outward, puts them into a trance.
Traditionally, this was interpreted as a method of putting the subject into a "hypnotic trance"; however, subsequent "nonstate" theorists have viewed it differently, seeing it as a means of heightening client expectation, defining their role, focusing attention, etc.
There are several different induction techniques. One of the most influential methods was Braid's "eye-fixation" technique, also known as "Braidism". Many variations of the eye-fixation approach exist, including the induction used in the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale SHSS , the most widely used research tool in the field of hypnotism.
The patient must be made to understand that he is to keep the eyes steadily fixed on the object, and the mind riveted on the idea of that one object. It will be observed, that owing to the consensual adjustment of the eyes, the pupils will be at first contracted: They will shortly begin to dilate, and, after they have done so to a considerable extent, and have assumed a wavy motion, if the fore and middle fingers of the right hand, extended and a little separated, are carried from the object toward the eyes, most probably the eyelids will close involuntarily, with a vibratory motion.
If this is not the case, or the patient allows the eyeballs to move, desire him to begin anew, giving him to understand that he is to allow the eyelids to close when the fingers are again carried towards the eyes, but that the eyeballs must be kept fixed, in the same position, and the mind riveted to the one idea of the object held above the eyes.
In general, it will be found, that the eyelids close with a vibratory motion, or become spasmodically closed. However, this method is still considered authoritative. Braid's main therapeutic strategy involved stimulating or reducing physiological functioning in different regions of the body.
In his later works, however, Braid placed increasing emphasis upon the use of a variety of different verbal and non-verbal forms of suggestion, including the use of "waking suggestion" and self-hypnosis. Subsequently, Hippolyte Bernheim shifted the emphasis from the physical state of hypnosis on to the psychological process of verbal suggestion: I define hypnotism as the induction of a peculiar psychical [i.
Often, it is true, the [hypnotic] sleep that may be induced facilitates suggestion, but it is not the necessary preliminary.
It is suggestion that rules hypnotism.
A distinction is commonly made between suggestions delivered "permissively" and those delivered in a more "authoritarian" manner. Even with local anesthesia, a patient may still feel pulling and poking and this can cause anxiety. Hypnoanesthesia might be a useful adjunct for surgical procedures where the patient is awake.
The literature is not clear. It is also not uncommon for patients to medicate themselves prior to surgery, by taking some of their prescription pain or anti-anxiety medication.
Published research looking at hypnoanesthesia has been mixed, plagued by poor methodology and not carefully separating out hypnosis and an independent variable. Those that do have a higher tendency to be negative. Hypnoanesthesia is mainly a form a deep meditation, which can be self-induced or guided by another.
Such techniques are as old as medicine itself. Every medical student learns how to distract patients from a painful procedure, engage them in small talk, and to calm their anxiety.
This is just good bed-side manner.
Hypnosis or self-hypnosis is just a formalized way to do this, without clear evidence that it is superior. The theme of mainstream reporting on surgery with hypnosis, however, generally paints a very different picture, for sensational effect — that of a patient in a trance while surgery is being performed on them with little or no anesthesia. This is a fiction. The risk with such surgery is damage to either the superior laryngeal nerve or recurrent laryngeal nerve RLN , which can cause hoarseness or loss of voice.
The greatest risk is from bilateral RLN injury, which can compromise breathing. Monitoring the function of the RLN during surgery is not a new idea, and there are numerous studies looking at this technique. This involves stimulating the nerve and measuring a response so that patients can be under general anesthesia.